Pollinator-Friendly Lawns


The weekend before last I had the pleasure of meeting Heather Holm, a great gardener and leading advocate for pollinators from Minneapolis.  She has self-published two very useful (and attractive) books: Pollinators of Native Plants (2014) and the multiple-award-winning Bees: An Identification and Native Plant Forage Guide (2017).

Heather told me about her own lawn, which she has overseeded with fine fescues and now mows just three times a year, with a reel mower set to the highest mowing height.  This more meadow-like condition has encouraged flowers from her surrounding beds to infiltrate.  As well as two species of violets, her lawn now sports woodland phlox, wild geranium and avens.  The net result has been to transform this area from a green desert (biologically speaking) to a happy refuge for pollinators.

This is one area of the landscape where even a small change in maintenance can have a big impact.  A study by US Forest Service of 16 suburban lawns in Springfield, Massachusetts found that reducing the frequency of mowing from weekly to once every two weeks can have a dramatic impact on the turf’s attractiveness to bees.  This is because weeds such as clover and dandelions that were routinely decapitated had a chance to bloom when mowing was postponed for just one week.  Presumably, it was the pollen and nectar these flowers offered that increased bee visitations to the lawn by slightly more than a third.  The diversity of the bees was impressive, too – the researchers identified 93 different species of bees visiting these small patches of turf.

This should just be a beginning.  Why not deliberately introduce wildflowers into our lawns?  I have naturalized Crocus chrysanthus, snow crocuses, in my lawn and because the grass, like Heather Holm’s, is a mixture of fine fescues that needs mowing only a couple of times a summer, the crocuses have performed as true perennials, returning year after year.  I planted these flowers because I love the very early spring color they provide, but they are also a fine early food source for bees and other pollinators. The tiny bluets (Houstonia caerulea) that have colonized my turf on their own are also an early food source, mostly for small bee flies as well as native bees.

In an era when grasslands are disappearing from much of the Northeast, lawns could provide a refuge for grassland flowers and their pollinators.  I’ve been planting violet wood sorrel into a small patch of sheep fescue (Festuca ovina) in the front yard of our Berkshire cottage.  This meadow flower, once common in Massachusetts, is now found in only six wild colonies state-wide.  My hope is that my lawn can provide a seventh.



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My father was a compulsive tree planter, but it was my mother who taught me the finer points of gardening.

Her homeschooling was followed by two years in the New York Botanical Garden’s School of Professional Horticulture, and then ten years as horticulturist at an Olmsted Brothers designed estate on the Hudson River Palisades.

I’ve worked as a horticultural journalist for 35 years, contributing to publications ranging from Martha Stewart Living to the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society and The New York Times.  My most recent book is Nature Into Art: The Gardens of Wave Hill, which is a tour of the lessons to be learned from that great public garden.  I’m currently focusing on my new podcast (at thomaschristophergardens.com) which features weekly interviews with leaders of environmentally-informed gardening.

My special enthusiasms include sustainable gardening, especially sustainable lawns;  heirloom chicken breeds; and recreating vintage New England hard ciders.


Contact Tom by email


  1. I’ve heard the term ‘calico lawn’ applied to flowering lawns. I think they are just lovely. Yours looks beautiful, great rant!

  2. Hello, where can I learn more about the fine fescues you use, and how to overseed with them? Also, what are good sources for fine fescue seed? Thanks!

  3. Folks at the University of Minnesota have been working on developing a bee lawn seed mix for several years. Last time I checked they had chosen a hard fescue for the grass and 3 flowers: Prunella vulgaris ssp. lanceolata (self heal), Thymus serpyllum (creeping thyme) and Trifolium repens (Dutch white clover). These are the only ones out of the original 64 trialed that survived AND flowered in their growing and cutting regime but they had hopes for a few more. Interestingly, different bees tended to favor one flower over the other. More here https://www.beelab.umn.edu/bees/beelawn. I think turning lawns into habitat is a great, easy resource we’re missing out on–bees in the grass got a whole chapter in my book, Our Native Bees!


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